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W. (1981) Effect of trivalent chromium on hepatic lipogenesis by the turkey poult. Poult. Sci. 60, 617-622. Ward, T. L., Southern, L. L., and Boleman, S. L. (1993) Effect of dietary chromium picolinate on growth, nitrogen balance and body composition of growing broiler chicks. Poult. Sci. 72 (Suppl. 1), 37. Hossain, S. M., Barreto, S. L., and Silva, C. G. (1998) Growth performance and carcass composition of broilers fed supplemental chromium from chromium...

References

B. (2001) The bioinorganic chemistry of chromium(III). Polyhedron 20, 1-26. 2 Mertz, W., and Schwarz, K. (1955) Impaired intravenous glucose tolerance as an early sign of dietary necrotic liver degeneration. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 58, 504-506. 3 Schwarz, K., and Mertz, W. (1957) A glucose tolerance factor and its differentiation from factor 3. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 72, 515-518. 4 Schwarz, K., and Mertz, W. (1959) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 85, 292-295. 5 Mertz, W., Roginski, E....

Relation Of Chromium Metabolism To Iron Metabolism

The original hypothesis that the effects of chromium on parameters related to diabetes may, in fact, be due to either influences of chromium on iron metabolism or influences of iron on chromium metabolism has not yet been fully explored 13 . A growing number of studies have reported a link between high iron levels and both type II and gestational diabetes 68-71 . It has been well established that iron-binding proteins are involved in chromium binding, transport, and storage 44, 72-74 . Chromium...

Trivalent Chromium Supplementation Syndrome X And Weight Loss

Obesity is a highly prevalent health problem in the United States 55, 56 . Obesity adversely affects all elements of the atherogenic cardiovascular risk profile, including blood lipids, hypertension, glucose tolerance, left ventricular hypertrophy, and plasma fibrinogen 55-57 . Existing elements of insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, lipid disturbances, and glucose intolerance have been characterized by the term Syndrome X 55-57 . Theoretical considerations suggest that insulin...

Chromium Supplementation And Depression

There has been interest in assessing the effect of chromium on other disease states, particularly, psychiatric conditions such as depression. Depression has been associated with insulin resistance 78 and it is conceivable that increased insulin sensitivity leads to enhanced central noradrenergic and serotonergic activity. Postsynaptic brain serotonin receptor down-regulation by chromium in humans has also been reported which could relate to insulin sensitivity and depression 79 . A small,...

Excretion

Absorbed chromium is excreted principally in the urine, and in small quantities in the hair, sweat, and bile 54, 58, 66 . At least 80 of the absorbed chromium is eliminated via the kidneys 67 . The urinary chromium loss of humans coincides with the amount of chromium lost from the blood plasma 61 . Stresses due to high sugar diets, strenuous exercise, physical trauma, and pregnancy and lactation have been shown to enhance chromium losses 68 . Kozlovsky et al. 69 have shown that subjects who...

Ir

Proposed mechanism for the activation of insulin receptor kinase activity by chromodulin in response to insulin. The inactive form of the insulin receptor (IR) is converted to the active form by binding insulin (I). This triggers a movement of chromodulin (presumably in the form of chromium transferrin, Cr-Tf) from the blood into insulin dependent cells, which in turn results in a binding of chromium to apochromodulin (triangle). Finally, the holochromodulin (square) binds to the...

The Chromium Glucose Tolerance Factor

The label of Cr3+ essentiality was bestowed ahead of direct scientific evidence showing that Cr3+ was present in any enzyme or cofactor. A chromium-containing glucose tolerance factor was originally introduced as the biologically active form of Cr3+ by Mertz and coworkers 1, 29-31 , and this highly cited first model for the biological function of Cr3+, namely a Cr3+ complex of niacin, glycine, cysteine, and glutamic acid that formed a complex with insulin and the insulin receptor 30 , was...

Reasons For Questioning CrIii Supplement Safety

Questions regarding the safety of Cr(III) dietary supplements are valid and necessary because these substances are not regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), recommended doses are much higher than normal dietary intakes, the general ability of Cr(III) to damage DNA may play a role in Cr(VI)-induced cancers, and the chemistry of Cr(III) is controlled by the metal's ligand environment, thus one form of Cr(III) may be genotoxic while another produces no damage to DNA. The general...

Introduction

Trivalent chromium (Cr3+) has generally been accepted to be a trace essential metal since Schwartz and Mertz first concluded that addition of Cr3+ salts to a rat diet increased blood glucose removal 1 . It is currently accepted by many to maintain normal blood sugar levels, regulate proper carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and to enhance insulin signaling, as discussed in other chapters in this text. The strongest advocates for this paradigm have included those involved with the chromium...

Chromiumiii Diabetes And Insulin Response

Dietary trivalent chromium has been shown to play an important role in type 2 diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes, steroid-induced diabetes, and glucose tolerance by providing significant beneficial effects on the insulin system, often enhancing insulin sensitivity and overcoming glucose intolerance. The relationship between Cr(III) and its effect on diabetes was determined by Davis and Vincent in 1997 in which chromium has been shown to bind to insulin receptor, thus resulting in the...

Chromiumiii Supplementation In Lowering Blood Pressure Hypertension And Cholesterol

According to the American Heart Association, nearly 100 million Americans have an average cholesterol level above 200mg dL or higher. Reports have shown that persons with elevated insulin levels exhibit increased levels of LDL cholesterol, decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and high blood pressure compared to individuals with normal insulin levels 12, 13 . Furthermore, as blood pressure increases steadily, especially in aging individuals, high blood pressure can lead to...

Data Not Consistent With Chromium Essentiality

Evidence for the essentiality of chromium is purported to come from cases of long-term total parenteral nutrition. Five cases were reported between 1977 and 1998 in which addition of Cr to TPN was concluded to affect glucose intolerance and or neuropathy 14-18 . However, taken as a whole, these cases did not show a consistent relationship between observed symptoms and either length of time on TPN, baseline or supplemented levels of Cr in TPN, or levels of Cr in serum before or after...

Basis For Consideration Of Chromium As An Essential Nutrient

Chromium has been identified as an element that potentiates insulin action both in vivo and in vitro 11 . In 1957, Schwarz and Mertz reported that a substance in porcine kidney restored impaired glucose tolerance in rats 12 . Subsequently, Jeejeebhoy and colleagues 13 reported dramatic improvements in glucose regulation with chromium supplementation in a patient receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN). This woman had received TPN for more than 3 years when she unexpectedly lost weight and...

Adultonset diabetes and chromium

The potential relationship between chromium excretion and insulin signaling raises questions about potential associations between chromium action and diabetes. Over 120 million people across the planet have been estimated to have diabetes mellitus, with approximately 16 million of these in the United States. Between 90 and 95 of the US cases are of type 2 diabetes (also called adult-onset or non-insulin dependent diabetes). Type 2 diabetes is the form responsible for the rapid increase in...

The identification of GTF

The field of chromium biochemistry started in 1955 when Mertz and Schwarz fed rats a Torula yeast-based diet which resulted in the rats apparently developing impaired glucose tolerance in response to an intravenous glucose load (in addition to previously identified necrotic liver degeneration) 2 . Shortly thereafter a dietary factor (selenium) was discovered which could reverse the liver disorder but not the glucose intolerance thus, the authors believed they had identified a new dietary...