Binucleate A cell that has two nuclei

Bioaccumulation Accumulation of substances in living organisms because the rate of intake exceeds the capacity to excrete or metabolize the substance. Organisms at the top of a food chain can accumulate considerable amounts of some substances, the most notorious of which was DDT. bioactivation Metabolic conversion of a xenobiotic substance to a more toxic or active derivative. bioassay An assay for the activity or potency of a substance that involves testing its activity on living material....

Gastrocoel See archenteron

Gastroparesis Disorder in which paralysis of the stomach muscles delays the passage of food through the stomach. Often associated with Type 1 diabetes. Gastropoda Class of the Phylum Mollusca snails, slugs, limpets and conches. gastrula Embryonic stage of an animal when gastrulation occurs follows blastula stage. gastrulation During embryonic development of most animals a complex and coordinated series of cellular movements occurs at the end of cleavage. The details of these movements,...

Borrel body See Bollinger bodies

Borrelia burgdorferi Spirochaete, responsible for Lyme disease. Can be isolated from midgut of ticks (Ixodes). bortezomib Velcade Small molecule drug, a modified dipeptidyl boronic acid, that inhibits the chymotypsin-like activity of the 26S proteosome used in treatment of multiple myeloma. Botox Proprietary name for Botulinum toxin type A, injected into the skin as a temporary treatment to make lines on the face less apparent. botrocetin Venom coagglutinin Lectin (22 kDa) from Bothrops...

Cyclizine hydrochloride An antiemetic antihistamine drug

Cyclo-oxygenase COX Enzyme complex present in most tissues that produces various prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid inhibited by aspirinlike drugs, probably accounting for their anti-inflammatory effects. Three isoforms are known COX-1, COX-2 and COX-3. cyclodextrins Cyclic polymers of six, seven or eight a-1,4-linked D-glucose residues. The toroidal structure allows them to act as hydrophilic carriers of hydrophobic molecules. cycloheximide Antibiotic (MW 281) isolated from...

Aplastic anaemia

Endocrine cells (chiefly G and D types) and a few parietal (oxyntic) cells. antrum 1. A cavity or chamber, especially in bone. 2. The lower third of the stomach which lies between the body of the stomach and the pyloric canal. 3. In the ovary, the fluid-filled space within the follicle. Antrycide Proprietary name for an antitrypanocidal drug used in veterinary practice. anucleolate Literally, having no nucleoli. An anucleolate mutant of Xenopus (viable when heterozygous) is used in nuclear...

Cobalamin Vitamin B12 See Table V1 cobra venom factor See C3

Cobratoxin a-Cobratoxin Polypeptide toxin (71 residues) from Naja kaouthia. One of the alpha-neurotoxins (curaremimetics), it binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with high affinity. cocaine Drug of abuse and psychostimulant that acts to increase extra-neuronal dopamine in the midbrain by binding to the dopamine uptake transporter and hence inhibiting dopamine re-uptake at the plasma membrane. co-carcinogens Substances that, though not carcinogenic in their own right, potentiate the...

Benzamidine A potent inhibitor of serine endopeptidases such as thrombin and trypsin

Benzimidazole N,N' -Methenyl-o-Phenylenediamine Benzimidazole and its derivatives are used in organic synthesis and vermicides or fungicides. An example of benzimidazole class fungicides is benomyl. benzodiazepines Class of drugs that are anxiolytics or hypnotics, widely used in medical practice as CNS depressants. Enhance the inhibitory action of GABA by modulating GABA receptors. Diazepam (Valium) is commonly used for relieving anxiety, and nitrazepam (Mogadon) for inducing hypnosis....