Granulocyte colony stimulating factor GCSF

A synthetic hormone that stimulates growth of the GRANULOCYTE, a specific type of WHITE BLOOD CELL. Synthetic G-CSF is the same as a cytokine glycoprotein that occurs in the body. It is used to alleviate the neutropenia caused by certain drugs and conditions. Side effects of this treatment can be nausea, rash, and bone pain. (Trade name is Neupogen.)

granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) A naturally occurring cytokine glycoprotein that stimulates production of neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages. Synthetically produced GM-CSF is effective in treating bone marrow deficiency after chemotherapy, bone marrow transplantation, or use of some certain drugs. It is synthetically produced but exactly the same as cytokines produced in every human's body. GM-CSF's generic name is sargvamostim. Side effects can include bone pain, edema, and eosinophilia. (Trade names are Leukine and Prokine.)

granulocytopenia A condition resulting from having a low number of granulocytes. It is common in late HIV disease. It leads to an unusually high risk of bacterial infection. Treatment with ganciclovir and some sulfa drugs can lead to gran-

ulocytopenia as a side effect in some instances. It can be treated sometimes with g-csf.

granuloma A granular tumor or growth, usually of lymphoid and epithelial cells. It occurs in various infectious diseases such as tuberculosis (TB), leishmaniasis, and Mycobacterium avium complex (mac).

granuloma inguinale A very rare sexually transmitted disease most often affecting the groin, genitals, or perianal area. It less commonly affects the cervix, uterus, bladder, and rectum in females. The infection is caused by a microbacillus known as Donovania granulomatis, and the condition is also known as donovanosis. First symptoms occur about one to four weeks after exposure and include swelling, usually in the groin. The swollen area ruptures, and chronic painful ulcers with an unpleasant odor form. New lesions continue to appear, and the disease may eventually cover the reproductive organs, lower abdomen, and buttocks. Massive swelling of the genitals (elephantiasis) is a possible complication. Treatment includes antibiotics such as streptomycin, and improvements are usually noted within a few weeks. Recurrences are common.

grapefruit juice A study in the 1980s showed that a glass of grapefruit juice can help the body absorb several common medicines including sedatives and blood pressure medications. Grapefruit juice decreases the amount of an enzyme present in the small intestine to allow higher body intake. It has been shown in studies to increase the amount of saquinavir taken in by the body by 50 percent of the usual amount. However, studies have also shown that increasing the level of protease inhibitors in the body is not always beneficial because side effects may increase. Grapefruit juice has also been shown to decrease absorption of other drugs as a result of its high acid content. Do not use grapefruit juice to take indinavir (Crix-ivan) or nelfinavir (Viracept) as these drugs break down in the high acid content of the juice and less is absorbed into the body. Talk with a physician about drinking of grapefruit juice with use of these drugs.

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