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Single Parenting Becoming the Best Parent For Your Child

Single Parenting Becoming the Best Parent For Your Child

Parenting is a challenging task. As a single parent, how can you juggle work, parenting, and possibly college studies single handedly and still manage to be an ideal parent for your child? Read the 65-page eBook Single Parenting Becoming The Best Parent For Your Child to find out how. Loaded with tips, it can inspire, empower, and instruct you to successfully face the challenges of parenthood.

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Smart Parenting Guide

This ebook from Daniel Dwase gives you the very best tips and information about how to raise your children in such a way as to get smart, responsible, caring, and loving children. If you have problems disciplining your children, this is the book for you. You don't have to be concerned about your children running amok; Dwase gives you the insight that you need to make sure that your children turn out well in the end. This ebook lets you give your child the best gift that you ever could: a loving, nurturing, healthy and loving childhood. By building a quality relationship with them, you will be able to raise a child that continues that relationship into adulthood. Building a quality relationship is the best way to give your child a healthy future and a loving family. You will both empower your child to succeed and reduces behavioral problems Start building your child's future today!

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Parenthood Adoption And Children Of Ones

Tamara Pyles and Marla Liston, who had been in a relationship for over fifteen years, decided to raise a child together, and decided that Pyles would be the biological mother. Three years after the birth of the child, Connor, their relationship ended. Liston brought legal action against Pyles, arguing that as one of Connor's parents she should be granted visitation rights and shared parenting responsibilities (No. 97APf01-137, 1997 Ohio A Lexis 3627). In 1997, however, the court ruled that because Liston was not Connor's 'natural' parent, and had not legally adopted Connor, that she had no legal rights nor responsibilities with respect to Connor (Lexis, 3627, 8). Insofar as one thinks that being a parent is primarily about having a particular biological relationship to the child in question, this obviously makes sense. But at the appellate level, one judge dissented from the opinion described above. Judge Tyack argued that the 'facts before us indicate that Connor was indeed the...

Child care centers and infectious disease since

Still, there are ways to lessen the risk. In fact, recent research indicates that after the first year, children in child care get sick at about half the rate as do those who are cared for at home. This is because youngsters in day care are exposed to germs sooner, and their immune systems learn to cope with the onslaught of exposure. Before child-care facilities can be licensed, they must meet certain hygiene standards in a variety of areas, as set by local and state licensing authorities. Among other things, centers should clean all surfaces with a safe disinfectant. surfaces should be dried with paper towels after being sprayed. Adequate ventilation and sanitation are necessary. Chemical air fresheners should not be used, because many children are allergic to them. Many infections in child-care centers are spread by fecal contamination. When diapers are changed, tiny amounts of feces on hands can be transferred to countertops, toys, and door handles, so that if one child is...

Few Words about Self Report Tests

As you work your way through the book, you will notice that some of the items on the various tests are not directly relevant to your situation. You will be asked about disciplining your children, your relationship with your family, or your feelings about colleagues at work, situations that not everyone has experienced. When you come across one of these items that does not apply to your life, try to answer it as you imagine you would feel if you had such an experience. Even though your response is only your best guess, by responding to such items your final score will be more accurate than it would be had you skipped over the item.

Genetics And The Ethical Legal And Sociological Debate

Chapter 11 Children of One's Own by J. M. Kaplan. This paper displays a perspective on the influence of genetics that is quite different to all the other papers of the volume, namely, the negative influence of some kind of rhetoric associated with the Human Genome Project on a crucial notion of our society the notion of parenthood. Indeed, the author challenges the link between genetic child and child of one's own and more generally he challenges the genetic notion of parenthood and makes a case for regarding the social relationships as defining parenthood. The author invokes several legal cases as evidence of the genetic-oriented ideology of parenthood and argues for another view of parenthood. Kaplan starts challenging the overall presentation of technologies for assisted reproduction which often aim explicitly at giving hitherto infertile couples a child of their own - that is, a child that is genetically related to them. Kaplan formulates his main objection in the form of the...

Origins of Social Interest

Social interest is rooted as potentiality in everyone, but it must be developed before it can contribute to a useful style of life. It originates from the mother-child relationship during the early months of infancy. Every person who has survived infancy was kept alive by a mothering person who possessed some amount of social mterest. Thus, every person lias had the seeds of social interest sown during those early months. Adler believed that marriage and parenthood is a task for two. However, the two parents may influence a child's social mterest in somewhat different ways. The mother's job is to develop a bond that encourages the child's mature social interest and fosters a sense of cooperation. Ideally, she should have a genuine and deep-rooted love for her child a love that is centered on the child's well-being, not on her own needs or wants. This healthy love relationship develops from a true carhig for her child, her husband, and other people. If the mother has learned to give...

Pampered Style of Life

Abused and mistreated children develop little social interest and tend to create a neglected style of life. They have little confidence in themselves and tend to overestimate difficulties connected with life's major problems. They are distrustful of other people and are unable to cooperate for the common welfare. They see society as enemy country, feel alienated from all other people, and experience a strong sense of envy toward the success of others. Neglected children have many of the characteristics of pampered ones, but generally they are more suspicious and more likely to be dangerous to others (Adler, 1927).

And Infant Health Promotion

In addition, children's hospitals are centers of medical education and research, pioneering new approaches to organ transplants, open heart surgery, and the treatment of trauma. Founded more than a century ago as charitable refuges for sick and abandoned children, these special hospitals today continue to fight against social problems threatening America's children, including violence, tobacco and drug use, inadequate parenting skills, and lack of access to appropriate health care.

The Integration of First and Third Person Information

This solution to the challenges of commonsense psychology makes two requirements of the information-processing circumstances of learners. First, learners must be regularly and reliably presented with conditions in which they are exposed to information pertaining to the psychological activity of self and of others together. Such conditions create opportunities for first- and third-person information and for current and noncurrent information to be integrated. As we shall see, the social conditions in which young children develop satisfy this first requirement (see also Carpendale & Lewis, 2004). Second, learners must be able to construct integrated repre

Critique of Object Relations Theory

Perhaps the most useful feature of object relations theory is its ability to organize information about the behavior of infants. More than most other personality theorists, object relations theorists have speculated on how humans gradually come to acquire a sense of identity. Klein, and especially Mahler, Bowlby, and Ainsworth, built their theories on careful observations of the mother-child relationship. They watched the interactions between infant and mother and drew inferences based on what they saw. However, beyond the early childhood years, object relations theory lacks usefulness as an organizer of knowledge.

Concept of Humanity

Object relations theorists generally see human personality as a product of the early mother-child relationship. The interaction between mother and infant lays the foundation for future personality development because that early interpersonal experience serves as a prototype for subsequent interpersonal relations. Klein saw the human psyche as unstable, fluid, constantly fending off psychotic anxieties (Mitchell & Black, 1995, p. 87). Moreover, each of us struggles with the deep terrors of annihilation . . . and utter abandonment (p. 88). Because they emphasize the mother-child relationship and view these experiences as crucial to later development, object relations theorists rate high on determinism and low on free choice. Object relations theories assume that the mother-child relationship during the first 4 or 5 months is the most critical time for personality development.

Interview and History

The PSD patient often has a history of other conversion disorders and prior psychological stress unrelated to the symptom (Pincus and Tucker, 1974). PSD onset is sudden and tends to be linked to a specific traumatic event (e.g., surgery) or painful emotional experiences (e.g., death of a family member). In the patient interview, the speech-language pathologist determines what the patient might gain from the presenting speech disorder. Primary gain refers to the reduction of anxiety, tension, and conflict provided by the speech disorder. This could be related to a breakdown in communication between the patient and some person of importance, such as a spouse, a boss, or parent. Here the speech problem constitutes a lesser dilemma for the individual than the interpersonal problems from which it arose. Secondary gain refers to those benefits received by the individual from the external environment. This could take the form of monetary compensation, attention, and sympathy from others over...

Background To Study 1 And Study

More effective in raising reading comprehension levels than providing pre-reading activities, and in fact was associated with higher levels of retention. Gernsbacher, Hallada & Robertson (1998) showed that readers require high levels of metacognitive understanding in order to make inferences about story characters' emotional states. High-knowledge readers generate richer mental state models than low-knowledge readers, pointing to the importance of having language to talk about mental states (Barry & Lazarte, 1998). It has been shown that mental state inferencing is difficult in reading comprehension activity (Bahri & Al-Hussein, 1997). One reason for this may be that while children are expected to know about reasoning, teachers may not necessarily be given instructions in how to teach children to talk about thought (Franks, Mulhern & Schillinger, 1997). This is particularly salient for teachers of second-language learners who may not pick up this kind of language outside...

Federation for Children with Special Needs A

Feeding problems Eating is a natural response to hunger, and the habits children develop early in life can influence their attitudes toward food for the rest of their lives. While a child who is reluctant to eat can be upsetting to parents, in fact most children go through at least one fussy-eating phase, refusing most of the foods they are offered. In most cases, these are just phases, and studies have found that while children may appear not to eat much over the course of a day, in fact over a week's time their intake is almost always adequate.

Trends In Development Stages And Universality

Even a cursory exposure to child development leaves us with some knowledge of developmental milestones Babies normally take their first step at about 12 months they become toilet trained sometime around 3 years, and so on. Milestones are valuable because they provide a set of benchmarks for developmental progress. However, when attempting to understand the nature of developmental change, milestones measured in months or years are of little help. As I mentioned earlier, age by itself does not cause change to occur. Furthermore, the age given marks both the endpoint of a complicated developmental process up to that achievement and the starting point of subsequent elaborate developmental events. Thus, in one sense, no age is any more significant than any other because development is continuous and unending. There is no point at which children take a break from development after reaching a milestone to return after they have gotten their energy back.

Courtship in the Pleistocene

Maybe not, but a romantic psychodrama is just what we need to envision how sexual choice may have worked during human evolution. This is not a vain hope. In some ways we are better positioned to understand sexual selection than survival selection. The sexual challenges our ancestors faced were created by other members of their own species. Likewise today If our thoughts and feelings about sexual relationships are not too different from those of our ancestors, then our sexual challenges must not be too different. We get infatuated, we fall in love, we feel ecstatic, jealous, or heartbroken, we grow bored with some partners, and, if lucky, we develop a companionable attachment to the sexual partners with whom we raise children. We are attracted to beautiful faces and bodies, but also to a good sense of humor, a kind personality, a keen intelligence, and a high social status. If these sexual tastes are part of human nature that evolved gradually, our ancestors must have felt similarly to...

Were Fathers Important

Viewed from the broad sweep of evolution, it is unlikely that male hominids did much direct fathering. In almost all mammals and all primates, females do almost all of the child care, with very little help from males. Males could never be sure which offspring really carried their genes, whereas females could be certain. This uncertainty about paternity leads most male mammals to invest much more in pursuing new sexual opportunities than in taking care of their putative offspring. There is still much debate about the importance of fathers in human evolution. Men show some signs of having been selected as good and helpful fathers, but our paternal instincts have not been well researched yet. Modern fathers form strong emotional attachments to their children, and this is probably an evolved propensity. A few of them even spend almost 20 percent as much time doing child care as their female partners do. Recent surveys show that Japanese fathers are starting to play with their children for...

Competence The Basic Strength of the School

From the conflict of industry versus mferiority, school-age children develop the basic strength of competence that is, the confidence to use one's physical and cognitive abilities to solve the problems that accompany school age. Competence lays the foundation for co-operative participation in productive adult life (Erikson, 1968, p. 126).

Routes to Immortality

In both routes to immortality, the vast majority of cells (bacteria or gametes) die, but this does not compromise the continuance of cell lineages that happen to have escaped accidental or genetically-based deaths. Thus, the efficacy of both pathways to immortality depends critically on the autonomy of the proliferating cells. To emphasize why this is so, consider the prospect of immortality for a multicellular organism such as yourself. Even if some of your somatic cells and tissues could keep pace with DNA damage through the nonsexual strategy of cellular turnover and replacement, this wouldn't help you survive indefinitely, because the fate of these cell lineages is inextricably tied to the remainder of your soma, which as a whole inevitably senesces and dies (as predicted by the evolutionary theories of aging). In other words, death or severe malfunction of any critical tissue within your body dooms all of your somatic cells, regardless of how healthy they otherwise might be....

The Point Of Marriage

How One way to exploit the other gender is to round up as many as possible of them and persuade them to mate with you, then desert them, as bull elephant seals do The opposite extreme is to find one individual and share all the duties of parenthood equally, as albatrosses do Every species falls somewhere on that spectrum, with its own characteristic mating system. Where does humanity fall

What Do We Know About Normal Bilingual Development

Contrary to earlier views (Volterra and Taeschner, 1978, for example), it is now clear that bilingual children develop separate grammatical systems for each language (Genesee, 2000 Meisel, 2001). This is evident as soon as they begin producing language that is clearly organized according to grammatical principles (in English, from the two-word stage onward). For the most part, bilingual children demonstrate the same stages and patterns of syntactic development in each language as children who acquire the same languages monolingually (e.g., Deuchar and Quay, 2000 Juan-Garau and Perez-Vidal, 2000). Some bilingual children may show transfer (or so-called interference) effects such that a grammatical pattern (rule) from one language appears inappropriately when the child uses the other language (Dopke, 2000 Yip and Matthews, 2000). Such transfer effects are usually limited in scope and generally reflect grammatical overlap in the two languages. When transfer occurs, it is often,...

Resisting the Urge to Fix Things

The ability to distinguish between emergencies and teaching opportunities determines whether a leader will hasten to fix things that do not need to be fixed or will allow the staff working with him to explore solutions (to discover for themselves that, alas, a solution is needed). This is by no means easy. Imagine that you are a mother watching your child bake a cake for the first time. The child adds flour, eggs, and sugar, all in the wrong order some of the batter even escapes the bowl boundaries. Will this truly affect the cake baking Only time and experience will tell. It is knowing when this time and experience is available that is key. Aside from adding motor oil in lieu of molasses, there are few fatal mistakes in mixing a cake however, there are countless opportunities to improve. Even leaving out an ingredient leads to better judgment next time, since the cake will likely be flat, dry, crisp, gooey, or otherwise less than perfect.

Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis HGE

Human Growth Foundation A nonprofit, volunteer organization dedicated to helping children and adults with disorders of growth and growth hormone through research, education, support, and advocacy. The Human Growth Foundation (HGF) includes concerned parents and friends of children

Human immunodeficiency virus HIV

In general, HIV infection is not very contagious from one child to another. Across the country there have been only a few reported transmissions, all of which involved direct blood contact in a family setting. Despite widespread concerns, there are no reported transmissions of the HIV virus within a school or child-care setting. Since the largest danger is direct blood contact, those in schools and child-care programs should routinely use gloves when in contact with blood. As children with HIV become older and the latency period stretches longer, counseling and education are imperative to prevent sexual transmission of the virus.

Recommendations for Clinicians

It is important to recognize that as a result of the constant contact that Dominicans in the United States retain with the Dominican Republic, their acculturation may differ from that of other Hispanics in the United States. The remigration process puts Dominicans in double jeopardy, because they feel marginalized and unintegrated in both the United States and the Dominican Republic. Remigration may make the process of acculturation not only difficult but at times improbable, as exemplified by the significant levels of maladjustment (Cosgrove 1992). Unemployment and the lowering of occupational status, particularly in professional men, can cause significant stresses among family members, aggravating the possibility of domestic violence, alcoholism, and negative effects on both marital relationships and parent-child relationships.

Retention of Scientific Talent

Women, unfortunately, are more likely to leave science or work in it part time than men. If true, the question that begs an answer is What can be done about this and by whom Obviously that is a difficult question with no easy answer and one that many different people, from teachers to scientists to politicians to policy makers, have attempted to tackle with varying degrees of success. At an international conference on women in science in New Delhi in 2004, the question of what to do about female attrition from science was central to many of the presentations. One participant, J. Scott Long, reported some of the institutional changes that American universities have begun implementing, such as flexible tenure tracks, parental leave for either parent, and increased and more flexible child-care facilities. Policy changes have come as well from politicians, as happened in 1980 when Congress authorized a 30-million budget for the National Science Foundation (NSF) to increase women's...

Reservations about Sociobiological Explanations

One potential danger is the sheer allure of evolutionary explanations for human behaviors. One more example will suffice. Women and other female mammals have evolved strong, genetically-based behavioral dispositions for nurturing their infants, in whom they have both an assurance of maternity and a huge prepartum investment of resources. It is only a small step in logic to assume that male mammals are genetically less inclined to invest heavily in child care (due to evolutionary selection pressures stemming from the uncertainty of paternity and a limited investment in the fetus). A logical next stride is to suppose that men are predisposed genetically to polygyny, from which might follow a logical hop that men tend to enjoy the prospects of multiple matings through pornography. A leap of inference could lead to the supposition that if frustrated by social circumstance, men are predisposed toward rape,29 which in turn might catapult the rea-soner to a sociobiological explanation for...

The Personal Is The Medical

The widening scope of medical practice is not confined to the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disturbance. Doctors have become increasingly involved in the regulation of the more intimate and personal aspects of their patients' lives, seeking to influence their conduct of intimate relationships. Thus GPs are now exhorted to take an active interest in patients' sexual behaviour, to be alert to all possible manifestations of domestic violence and to promote parenting skills. Different influences have pushed these concerns into the GP's surgery, moving with different dynamics over the past decade. The new discipline of 'sexual health' indicated the creation of a link between 'sex' and 'health', two formerly autonomous, if not antagonistic, spheres of human endeavour. (In practice, the links assiduously promoted by the Aids establishment were between sex and disease, pleasure and death.) As the Aids scare faltered in the early 1990s, activists turned to running training courses...

Inking About Dollard and Millers Theory

How would you be able to tell whether this is a case of same behavior, copying, or matched dependent behavior Do you agree with the advice Dollard and Miller give for raising children in each of the four critical training periods of childhood Why or why not

Poverty Effects on Language

Understanding the Relation Between Poverty and Language Development. Low family income cannot directly cause the depressed language skills associated with poverty but must operate via mediators that affect language. Potential mediators, or pathways, through which poverty operates may include factors with general effects on health and development, such as nutrition, exposure to environmental hazards, and quality of schools and child care, and may also include factors with specific effects on language, such as the opportunity for one-to-one contact with an adult (McCartney, 1984) and the language use of parents and classroom teachers (Huttenlocher et al., 2002).

Sensory integration dysfunction 281

For most people, effective sensory integration occurs automatically and unconsciously, without effort. For others, the process is inefficient, demanding effort and attention with no guarantee of accuracy. Children develop sensory integration in the course of ordinary childhood activities. But for some children, sensory integration does not develop efficiently. When the process breaks down, a number of problems in learning, development, or behavior may develop. Prematurity As more premature infants survive today, they enter the world with easily overstimulated nervous systems and multiple medical problems. Parents need to learn how to give their premature infant the sensory nourishment their child requires for optimal development, and how to avoid harmful overstimulation. Developmental disorders Severe problems with sensory processing are a hallmark of autism. Autistic children seek out unusual amounts of certain types of sensations, but are extremely hypersensitive to others. similar...

Obsessive Compulsive Foundation OCF An

Family therapy Family therapy is often focused on making changes within the family system, such as improving communication skills and family interactions. Parenting children with ODD can be very difficult and trying for parents. Parents need support and understanding as well as techniques that aid in developing more effective parenting approaches.

Biography of Albert Bandura

His interests have been broad, including not only the therapeutic concerns that might have been anticipated from his clinical training but also broad issues in child development and social problems. He was president of the American Psychological Association in 1974 and has received many professional honors for his scholarly work, including the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions in 1980 (American Psychological Association, 1981).

Virtues of Good Fathers

Male courtship generosity does not usually end after the first copulation, or even after the first baby arrives. As we saw in Chapter 7, many men are fairly good and generous fathers, even to their step-children. They do nowhere near as much hands-on child care as mothers, of course, but do vastly more than most male primates. We saw how fatherly solicitude could be interpreted as courtship effort rather than parental effort. Women may break up with bad fathers and continue to sleep with good fathers, and that would have been sufficient sexual selection to favor good fathers. There is not much more to say about that here,

The Subjectivity Of Others

Not only do children develop an ability to distinguish their own and others' visual perspectives during the second year, they also start to appreciate what may be novel and interesting to others. Following up on a procedure introduced by Michael Tomasello and Katerina Haberl (2003), Amy MacPherson and I (2004) arranged for 12- and 18-month-olds to play with an experimenter while a series of toys were introduced into the play session. For two of the toys the experimenter left the play table and sat at a different table while she talked on the phone. In one of these cases, the child played with the toy without the adult and in the other case the adult played with the toy without the child. After all the toys had been introduced, they were all presented on a tray to the child. At this point the experimenter looked at the child and held out her hand as she said in an animated voice, Oh wow Look at that Can you give it to me The large majority of children in the 12-month-old group gave the...

Nightmares and Sleep Terrors

Almost all kids have nightmares. They usually occur later in the night, during REM sleep, and they can be remembered at the time and in the morning. To prevent nightmares, discuss comforting things before bedtime and don't let your child watch violent or scary shows on television, especially right before sleeping. When nightmares do occur, remain calm and reassuring, encourage your child to talk about it, and stay in the room until she settles down and is ready to go back to sleep. Don't get into bed with your child or allow her to get into yours this sends the message that she should be afraid of her own bed, and it can turn into a habit that's difficult to break. If nightmares happen more frequently or your child becomes afraid of going to sleep, then you need to address the issue during the day. Talk about what's frightening her and reassure her that the nightmares aren't real. But make sure to maintain a regular sleep routine and prevent bad habits from developing. If...

Why Consider A Career In Pediatrics

At the most fundamental level, of course, all pediatricians simply love working with kids. Forming special connections, they can understand and communicate with children when other doctors may not. While building a great deal of trust, pediatricians help kids reach their potential and be the best they can be. Medical students considering this specialty should make the most out of their clerkship and determine whether spending time with infants, children, and young adults is something that they enjoy. If you come away even a little more energized, with a feeling of gratification from having helped a child, then perhaps pediatrics is the career for you.

Jonathan Michael Kaplan

Abstract Technologies for assisted reproduction often aim explicitly at giving hitherto infertile couples a 'child of their own' - that is, a child that is genetically related to them. And many couples find themselves spending enormous amounts of money, time, and energy attempting to have a child via these techniques. But why should a genetic relationship make a child any more 'one's own' than other kinds of relationships - for example, those parent-child relationships forged through adoptions There is a wide-spread assumption in much of contemporary society that genetic parenthood is important because of what it implies about the relationship between the (physical and behavioral) traits of the parents and those traits of the child arguments relying on these assumptions have even been accepted in some legal cases. I argue here that this state of affairs is particularly unfortunate, and that the over-blown rhetoric of the Human Genome Project and related research programs is at least...

Charles Darwin To C Lyell

You must be very glad to be settled in your house, and I hope all the improvements satisfy you. As far as my experience goes, improvements are never perfection. I am very sorry to hear that you are still so very busy, and have so much work. And now for the main purport of my note, which is to ask and beg you and Mrs. Hooker (whom it is really an age since I have seen), and all your children, if you like, to come and spend a week here. It would be a great pleasure to me and to my wife As far as we can see, we shall be at home all the winter and all times probably would be equally convenient but if you can, do not put it off very late, as it may slip through. Think of this and persuade Mrs. Hooker, and be a good man and come.

Assessment of and Intervention with Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

For the population of children identified with hearing loss within the first 2 months of life, baseline communication assessments are typically conducted at 6-month intervals during the first 3 years of life (Stredler-Brown and Yoshinaga-Itano, 1994 Yoshinaga-Itano, 1994). Almost all of the infant assessment instruments are parent questionnaires that address the development of receptive and expressive language (e.g., MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories, Minnesota Child Development Inventory, Vineland Social Maturity Scales), auditory skills, early vocalizations, cognitive, fine motor, gross motor, self-help, and personal-social social-emotional issues. Videotaped analysis of parent-child interaction style and spontaneous speech and language production is frequently included.

Restless Legs Syndrome

A role model by making sleep a high priority for yourself. Next, now that your child is old enough to understand the scientific basis of sleep's role in health, you might try discussing the basics of sleep physiology, emphasizing that getting enough sleep will help socially and academically. Make sure your teen is aware of the risk of falling asleep at the wheel.

Preventing High Cholesterol in Children

Prevention is always the best medicine, and this is definitely the case for heart disease in children. Atherosclerosis or its precursors begin in childhood, and high cholesterol during this time may play a role in causing adult atherosclerosis. If your children don't have high cholesterol, it's still a great time to get them started with a healthy lifestyle. Encourage them to exercise and eat right. Children under two should not be on fat-restrictive diets, but after that, adopting the Step 1 diet (see Table 10.2) is a good way for children and adolescents to prevent heart disease. And best of all, doing so usually means that you have to adopt these healthy habits, too.

The Illusion Of Control

But to what extent do we really expect, or should we expect, our children to be like us Physically, it is quite clear that children tend to resemble their (genetic) parents more than they resemble randomly chosen humans, and its reasonably clear that they tend to physically resemble their genetic parents more than they do random individuals chosen from among their particular social geographic locality. But quite often, even when children physically resemble their parents more than they do the population in general, they still don't resemble their parents very much. Having a child that shares (half of) your DNA does not guarantee that the child will look very much like you obviously, children often differ physically from their parents in ways we find significant. This is not to say that being the genetic parent of a child doesn't alter the probabilities of particular kinds of phenotypic outcomes - clearly it does. If it didn't, some of the cases of the 'wrong' embryo being implanted in...

Box 341 Medical Genetics Specialist

Medical genetics specialists have an MD degree plus specialty training in an area such as pediatrics or internal medicine, plus fellowship subspecialty training in the diagnosis and treatment of genetic disorders, birth defects, and other types of malformations. As more and more is learned about the genetic causes of human health problems and effects of teratogenic agents, the role of the medical geneticist is becoming increasingly important and specialized. Your family physician can give you some information about genetics, but there is a limit to how much training can take place on any given specialty topic during the education of a family practitioner, a pediatrician, or an internal medicine specialist. If you have questions about a complex, severe, or rare medical condition in yourself, your child, or some other family member and are trying to make major decisions about having additional children after a child with a birth defect and or genetic disease has been born or decisions...

Box 342 Genetic Counselor

The other half of the medical genetics team is the genetic counselor. These health care specialists have a master's degree in genetic counseling. Their education has trained them to be able to assist you with the medical, genetic psychological, and social repercussions of whatever it is that took you to the medical geneticist in the first place. The genetic counselor works with the medical geneticist to help determine the origins of a trait that runs in your family, the causes of a birth defect, or the probability that something present in your relatives could turn up in your children. Part of the genetic counselor's job is to help assess risks to individuals who are not yet born or not yet known to be affected. They will also educate you and be sure that you understand any tests that are offered. They play a later role in helping interpret the outcomes that result from genetic testing and screening. Once results are obtained, the genetic counselor explains the results and deals with...

Iew Overview of Rogerss Theory

Rogers's theory has implications for major theoretical questions, as presented in Table 14.1. In the history of personality theories that have major relevance for psychotherapy, Rogers's theory holds a special place. It is the one theory of effective therapy that was first extensively tested by empirical research. Rogers, rightly, took pride that he had specified the conditions that needed to be created in the therapy process for them to be measured by observers, to say whether they were present in a particular therapy session. Further, he defines the outcomes of therapy so that they could be measured. This contribution alone, opening up psychotherapy to empirical verification, would alone make Rogers's theory stand out, but in addition, many of his theoretical assertions have withstood the test. The theory is not limited to therapy, but is comprehensive enough to have also been extended to other settings, including business organizations, and it offers advice to parents and others...

Reactive airway disease See asthma

Each child needs practice to be a fluent reader. Research at the National Institute of Health has found that phonics instruction should be taught as part of a comprehensive, literature-based reading program. Many opportunities for children to read at their own reading level help them to learn to read for meaning and enjoy reading. Highly trained teachers can help children develop good, overall literacy skills, with good vocabularies, knowledge of correct syntax and spelling, reasoning and questioning skills.

Language Outside Courtship

Even when non-sexual pressures started to shape human language, sexual selection would have subverted those pressures. This is because sexual choice tries to preempt the effects of natural selection as much as possible. For example, consider language as a way to teach children about plants and animals. Survival selection might favor such pedagogy one's children would be less likely to die of poisons and bites. Yet individuals might vary in teaching ability. If their differences remain genetically heritable (as they probably would, given the pressures of mutation on complex traits), and if teaching ability was reasonably important, sexual preferences would evolve to favor that ability. Individuals who mated with good teachers would produce children who taught their grandchildren more efficiently, allowing more grandchildren to carry one's genes forward. The ancestral versions of

Sensory integration dysfunction 447

Developmental disorders Severe problems with sensory processing is a hallmark of AUTISM. Autistic children seek out unusual amounts of certain types of sensations but are extremely hypersensitive to others. Similar traits are often seen in other children with developmental disorders. Improving sensory processing will help these children develop more productive contacts with people and environments.

The Role Of Language And Multiple Representations In Understanding Perspectival Diversity

A number of training studies have now been carried out to examine what kinds of experiences might help children develop an understanding of perspectival diversity, particularly as manifested by false belief understanding (e.g., Appleton & Reddy, 1996 Clements, Rustin, & McCallum, 2000 Lohmann & Tomasello, 2003 Slaughter & Gopnik, 1996). For our purposes, the most informative of these studies is that of Heidemarie Lohmann and Michael Tomasello. They were interested in the role of different kinds of language experience as well as of experience with objects that could be represented in more than one way. To explore these issues they devised four main types of training experience (see Table 9.5). Children of about 3.5 years of age were presented with a variety of misleading objects that initially appeared to be one thing and then on further inspection would be discovered to be something else. Those children in the full training group were shown the objects in turn as the...

What Are The Extroversion Of Mother Teresa

From an evolutionary point of view, an obvious question is how the altruistic and celibate life of this nun can be explained. After all, doesn't evolution impel reproduction While some theorists have traditionally explained religious behavior such as this as the triumph of spirituality over baser motives, evolutionary psychology rejects the idea that our inherited nature and our mental and spiritual lives are separate. We inherit predispositions for altruism toward others, even toward nonrelatives. That Mother Teresa developed these tendencies more than others must, of course, be explained, and speculation will have to suffice The early traumatic experience of witnessing the horrors of war and the uncertainty of parenthood may have directed her to an altruistic alternative reproductive strategy, sacrificing her personal reproductive potential for the enhanced survival prospects that she offered to those she served. Such a transformation depends not only on a genetic contribution, but...

Longitudinal Studies of Attachment

Both relational approaches and Horney's interpersonal psychoanalytic approach agree that parent-child relationships have an immense impact on the emotional development of the child. Developmental researchers are investigating messages about emotion that are conveyed in the family. Parents' understanding of their children's emotional states influences their interactions with the child in ways that can benefit or harm the child's physiological emotional reactions (Gottman, Katz, & Hooven, 1996). And children must learn to understand these emotional messages for example, it is important to distinguish whether parents are rejecting the child, or whether they are simply angry (Eisenberg, 1996). Relational theorists also emphasize early parent-child relationships and their implications for a sense of self and for interpersonal relationships throughout life. Disturbances in object relationships contribute to many disorders, including narcissism, and to disturbed relationships in...

Genes Genetic Determinism And Children

These kinds of claims are made by various human genetics researches in countless interviews and articles meant for popular consumption such claims have clearly had an impact on the social and legal landscapes surrounding parenthood. For example, in the contract pregnancy ('surrogate mother') case of Johnson v.Calvert, Johnson (the gestational birth mother) and Calvert (the woman whose egg was used in IVF and implanted in Johnson) each claimed to be the legal mother of the child that resulted. In this case, both the initial court ruling, and the decision of the appeals court, made explicit reference to the importance of the genetic relationship in framing their decisions. Judge Richard Parslow (a trial judge in Orange County) ruled that the gestational mother in the case was 'analogous to a foster parent' and that her womb was merely 'the home in which she had sheltered and fed another's child' (see Ellman et al 1991 1324, see Superior Court of Orange County, Nos. X-633190 and...

Biography of Erik Erikson

Born June 15, 1902, in southern Germany, Erikson was brought up by his mother and stepfather, but he remained uncertain of the true identity of his biological father. To discover his niche in life, Erikson ventured away from home during late adolescence, adopting the life of a wandering artist and poet. After nearly 7 years of drifting and searching, he returned home confused exhausted depressed and unable to sketch or paint. At this time, a fortuitous event changed his life He received a letter from his friend Peter Bios inviting him to teach children in a new school in Vienna. One of the founders of the school was Anna Freud who became not only Erikson s employer, but his psychoanalyst as well.

Resources in Mental Health

Since 1970, the number as well as the role of psychologists in Colombia has been substantially enhanced. Previously functioning primarily as an auxiliary of psychiatry, psychology has evolved during the last few decades, becoming the second leading profession in the mental health system and not only providing psychotherapeutic services but engaging in community work and scientific research as well. A study in 1983 found that approximately 4,500 psychologists had graduated in Colombia. In 1993, 16 pregraduate psychology programs and 8 graduate programs were available. In 1996, psychology masters' degrees were offered in the following areas clinical psychology, health psychology, community psychology, and child psychology (Ardila 1993).

Unconditional Positive Regard

Rogers found that clients are most likely to make progress when they feel accepted by the therapist. Obviously, a therapist cannot approve of maladaptive behaviors. Yet it is possible to convey a feeling of warmth and acceptance, of unconditional positive regard, offering the client acceptance that is not contingent on particular behaviors. (This is the same quality that Rogers advocated for effective parenting, described above.) Unconditional positive regard means that the therapist accepts the client, but not necessarily that the therapist approves. Somehow, even if the client behaves in abhorrent ways that may be criminal or racist or whatever, the therapist must find a nonjudgmental, accepting connection with the inner experience of that client.

Cal Behaviorism and Personality Theory Some Concerns

Arthur Staats (1986, 1993, 1996) has developed a theory of psychological behaviorism (earlier called paradigmatic behaviorism cf. Tiyon, 1990) that contributes behavioral insights to an understanding of personality. He criticizes the Skinnerian radical behaviorism tradition for neglecting issues of personality individual differences and psychological tests. His model addresses these ideas, and, in addition, it incorporates biological influences. In fact, the framework that Staats builds is one he argues can provide a unified vision for many disparate fields within psychology (e.g., Staats, 1991)- Therapy, social psychology, biological approaches, personality, developmental psychology All fit within the psychological behaviorism he sketches, though, as Staats admits, many aspects of the framework have yet to be filled in. In his analysis, the study of personality rests on more fundamental levels that include biology, learning, social interaction, and child development. In turn,...

FeSense of Self in Relationships

Relational theorist Stephen Mitchell (1970 1999) suggests that the early parent-child relationship is one in which parents' more or less distorted views of themselves and their child set up a distorted, grandiose self-image in the child. For example, the parents might create an unrealistically good and obedient image of their child, which is too limiting for a real child to have room to develop his or her full personality.

Posttraumatic stress disorder

Parents must put their baby to sleep on his back to help prevent SIDS, despite the chance that he may develop a flattened head. Simply repositioning the child's head during sleep is the most common treatment for positional plagiocephaly, which successfully reshapes the child's growing skull over time. The child's direction in the crib should be reposi-tioned (one night with head toward the top of the crib, one night toward the bottom), as well as his head position during sleep (one night with the left side of his head touching the mattress, one night with the right). Even though your child will probably move his head around throughout the night, it is still helpful to alternate sides. However, the AAP does not recommend using any devices that may restrict the movement of an infant's head.

Otitis Media Effects on Childrens Language

Recent models of a potential linkage between a history of OME and subsequent impaired language development hypothesize that not only factors inherent in the child but also the child's environment and the interaction between the child and the environment can affect this relationship (Roberts and Wallace, 1997 Vernon-Feagans, Emanual, and Blood, 1997 Roberts et al., 1998 Vernon-Feagans, 1999). These additional factors include both risk factors (e.g., the child has poor phonemic awareness skills, the mother has less than a high school education, the child care environment is noisy) and protective factors (e.g., the child has an excellent vocabulary, a literacy-rich home environment, and a responsive child care environment). Thus, it is proposed that the potential impact of OME on children's language development depends on the number and timing of OME episodes and associated hearing loss the child's cognitive, linguistic, and perceptual abilities the responsiveness and supportiveness of...

Sex And Surgery Being A Female Physician In The Or

To become a surgeon, you must love spending hours in the operating room more than anything else in the world. Most specialties are flexible enough to allow women physicians to have an outside family life and to raise children. The rigorous, sleep-deprived lifestyle of surgery, however, requires the greatest time commitment, particularly when it comes to the intensity and length of residency training. Partly because of this, surgery has traditionally been a rather male-dominated field. Excluding obstetrics-gynecology, only 18 of surgical residents are women.10 Within this small group, each female surgeon undergoes considerable self-examination to prepare herself for the demands of a surgical career.

Rhythmic Movement Disorders

You can minimize problems by continuing the good habits you've already established, such as maintaining a daily sleep schedule and a consistent bedtime routine. Never use sending your child to bed as a threat. Bedtime needs to be a secure, loving time, not a punishment. Your goal is to teach your child that bedtime is enjoyable, just as it is for us adults. During this time, toys become a key part of the child's life. To help with separation anxiety, you may also want to encourage the use of a security object such as a blanket, a doll, or a stuffed animal. However, don't go overboard and fill up your child's bed with toys, since too many objects in bed can be distracting and can create a choking hazard.

Parental Behavior and Personality Development

The trait of neuroticism in parents contributes to their abuse of children, apparently by making the parents less able to tolerate the negative emotions that come from stressful interactions with their children (Belsky, 1993 McCrae & Costa, 1988). Longitudinal research shows that parental acceptance and nonauthoritar-ian punishment in childhood predict higher ego development at age 30, particularly for females (Dubow, Huesmann, & Eron, 1987). Studies of parenting styles have been based on Baumrind's (1967, 1971) descriptions of various types of parenting. As Horney expected, neglectful parents have children who have greater difficulties. Authoritative parents, who provide both direction and acceptance, rear children who are better adjusted (Lamborn, Mounts, Steinberg, & Dornbusch, 1991).

Disrupting clothing or accessories

In recent years, following the same principle, I have engaged profoundly withdrawn children by perching my glasses precariously on my nose in such a way that certain children (with closed system disorders) felt compelled to restore them to their proper and more secure position. Since then, a colleague has gotten children to restore his tie after he had flipped it over his shoulder. The notion guiding all such use of clothing and accessories is that the children develop a fixed expectation (system) as to how clothes are worn and accessories carried. When these everyday systems are disrupted, closed system children on the autism spectrum feel compelled to restore them to their proper place.

Representing and accenting the bodyself

Once the child achieves basic body awareness, it is helpful to have the child represent himself or herself and others in drawings. Teaching children to represent themselves and others helps the child to conceptualize himself or herself as a separate being in relation to others. To make progress with representation and in the ability to shift to the other's perspective the children need to first be able to discriminate body parts and distinguish them from those of another person. They must also have sufficient command of the marker to draw a circle and put dots in the circle, as well as draw vertical and horizontal lines.

Combining scribble spheres

If each introduced scribble is considered a minisphere, then combining different scribbles produces a multisphere in that each scribble is arbitrarily related to another. In helping children achieve scribble combinations lines going through circles, dots inside circles each scribble is best interrupted at

The Cognitivedevelopmental Art Program

It seemed likely that a cognitive-developmental art program (C-D AP) could help disordered children develop a transition to representational drawing. In proceeding, we assumed that scribbles were to graphic symbols what babbling was to spoken words. Just as meaningful language emerged from babbling, so meaningful drawings could emerge from scribbling.

How It Works

The AAP was founded in June 1930 by 35 pediatricians who met in Detroit in response to the need for an independent pediatric forum to address children's needs. When the AAP was established, the idea that children have special developmental and health needs was unusual. Preventive health practices now associated with child care, such as immunizations and regular health exams, were only just beginning to change the custom of treating children as miniature adults. The AAP publishes a monthly scientific journal Pediatrics, a continuing education journal called Pediatrics in Review, and its membership newspaper AAP News. The AAP also produces patient education brochures and a series of child care books written by AAP members. The AAP executes original research in social, economic, and behavioral areas and promotes funding of research. It maintains a Washington, D.C., office to ensure that children's health needs are taken into consideration as legislation and public policy are developed....

Applied Value

A theory that has applied value, offering practical strategies for improving human life, has an edge over theories that are simply intellectually satisfying. For example, personality theories may suggest therapeutic interventions guide child care help select the best employees for a particular job or even predict what will happen in politics, based on the leader's personality (Immelman, 1993). As in many fields, personality psychology has both basic and applied interests that are not always integrated. Applied research is conducted to solve practical problems. Basic research is conducted for the purpose of advancing theory and scientific knowledge.


Imagine that you're watching your child's soccer game and the other team scores a goal. A parent complains that the goal shouldn't count because the player who scored it touched the ball with her hands in violation of the rules. At the moment the goal was scored, you hadn't noticed that the player used her hands, but when your mind runs an instant replay of the action, you now see that she did.

Cameras And Ratchets

Scientists used to think of mutations as rare events. But in recent years they have gradually come to realize how many mutations happen. They are accumulated at the rate of about one hundred per genome per generation in mammals. That is, your children will have one hundred differences from you and your spouse in their genes as a result of random copying errors by your enzymes or as a result of mutations in your ovaries or testicles caused by cosmic rays. Of those one hundred, about ninety-nine will not matter they will be so-called silent or neutral mutations that do not affect the sense of genes. That may not seem many, given that you have seventy-five thousand pairs of genes and that many of the changes will be tiny and harmless or will happen in silent DNA between genes. But it is enough to lead to a steady accumulation of defects and, of course, a steady rate of invention of new ideas.

Eggs and Sperm

Children they produce, and this makes sexual reproduction a higher-risk, higher-stakes game for them. Females vary less in their quantity of children, so they care more about quality. So what do the males do with all the extra energy that females are devoting to growing eggs, being pregnant, and producing milk They use it for reproductive competition and courtship. There is a fundamental tradeoff between courtship effort and parental effort. The more time and energy you devote to growing and raising children, the less time and energy you can devote to driving off sexual competitors and seducing sexual partners.

State Of Rebellion

Pro-71 advocates also included twenty-two Nobel laureates, the California State Treasurer and Controller, several state legislators, and more than fifty patient and disease advocacy groups, ranging from the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation, to the National Coalition of Hispanic Organizations and Planned Parenthood.

Further Readings

J., Menna, R., Vallance, D., Barwick, M. A., Im, N., and Horodezky, N. B. (1998). Language, social cognitive processing, and behavioral characteristics of psychiat-rically disturbed children with previously identified and unsuspected language impairments. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 39, 853-864. Mawhood, L., Howlin, P., and Rutter, M. (2000). Autism and developmental receptive language disorder A comparative follow-up in early adult life. I. Cognitive and language outcomes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 41, 547-559. Paul, R., and Kellogg, L. (1997). Temperament in late talkers. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 38, 803-811. Rapin, I. (1996). Practitioner review Developmental language disorder A clinical update. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 6, 643-655.


Intimacy grows out of the earlier need for tenderness but is more specific and involves a close interpersonal relationship between two people who are more or less of equal status. Intimacy must not be confused with sexual mterest. In fact, it develops prior to puberty, ideally during preadolescence when it usually exists between two children, each of whom sees the other as a person of equal value. Because intimacy is a dynamism that requires an equal partnership, it does not usually exist in parent-child relationships unless both are adults and see one another as equals.

Running Out Of Genes

The sage grouse of the American West has been the best studied of lekking birds It is an extraordinary experience to drive out to the middle of Wyoming before dawn, stop the car on a featureless plain that looks like every other one, and see it come alive with dancing grouse. Each knows his place each runs through his routinv of inflating the air sacs in his breast and strutting forward, bouncing the fleshy sacs through his feathers for all the world like a dancer at the Folies Bergere. The females wander through this market, and after several days of contemplating the goods on offer, they mate with one of the males That they are choosing, not being forced to choose, seems obvious The male does not mount the female until she squats in front of him. Minutes later his job is done, and her long and lonely parenthood is beginning. She has received only one thing from her mate genes and it looks as if she has tried hard to get the best there were to be had.

Early Childhood

Once agahi, Erikson took a broader view. To him, young children receive pleasure not only from mastering the sphincter muscle but also from mastering other body functions such as urinating, walking, throwing, holding, and so on. In addition, children develop a sense of control over then interpersonal environment, as well as a measure of self-control. However, early childhood is also a thne of experiencing doubt and shame as children learn that many of their attempts at autonomy are unsuccessful.

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A belongs to the enterovirus group of the picornaviruses, which include polio virus, cox-sackie virus, echo virus, and rhinovirus. The virus enters through the mouth, multiplies in the body, and is passed in the feces it can then be carried on an infected child's hands and spread by direct contact, or by eating food or drink handled by that person. While anyone can get hepatitis A, it occurs most often among children, most of whom become infected either from close personal contact between family members or in nursery schools or child-care centers. Outbreaks of hepatitis A among children attending day care have occurred since the 1970s. Because infection among children is usually mild or asymptomatic and patients are infectious before they develop symptoms, outbreaks are often only recognized when adult contacts (usually parents) get sick. poor hygienic practices among staff who change diapers and prepare food contribute to the spread of hepatitis A. Outbreaks rarely occur in...

Related Research

In contrast to most other psychodymanic theorists, Erikson stimulated quite a bit of empirical research, much of it on adolescence, young adulthood and adulthood. Some recent studies on adolescence, for example, has included research by Fowler and Dell (2004), Markstrom and Iborra (2003), and Reis and Youniss (2004). We focus, however, on two recent studies of generativity hi midlife, namely life changes and parenthood.


Ms does not shorten life span, and most people with the disease can lead fairly normal lives. Recent studies have found that, contrary to earlier beliefs, pregnancy does not worsen symptoms and does not affect the long-term course of the disease. However, some experts caution that a parent with Ms may not have the physical stamina to care for a baby or an active child and may need some child care help. For more information, contact the national multiple sclerosis society for address, see Appendix I.

Imaginary friends

Imaginary friends Imaginary playmates are a perfectly normal part of childhood that can offer youngsters a feeling of control in their lives. These invisible friends are not an indication of a mental health problem but are a common fact of life in many well-adjusted, creative children. Many children develop imaginary playmates between the ages of three and five, when they begin to form their own identities and to test the boundaries between fantasy and reality.

Parental Behavior

Although passing on one's genes to the next generation and beyond is clearly an important evolutionary outcome, sometimes the parents and children have divergent interests. It is not genetically advantageous to fully invest in parenthood at all times. Evolutionary models describe selection for deferring parenthood when conditions are not favorable to their survival (Boone & Kessler, 1999)- It may at times be beneficial, from the perspective of passing on one's genes, for parents to not safeguard the survival of one particular child, in order to invest their limited resources in other children who have been born or may be born in the future. The one child may have genetic shortcomings or the environmental context may not be favorable for survival (such as in times of famine). Even when times are not so austere, the interests of parent and child may diverge. Jay Belsky (1993) gives the example of a toddler's best interest through continuing breastfeeding, but a mother's interest in...

Even Odds

Assume for argument's sake that the odds cited for the likelihood of your child needing their own stem cells are accurate. Balance that against the spending of, say, 1,500 for the initial storage and 100 per year thereafter for the next two decades a total of 3,500 for what may be the upper limit as to how long the cells can be minimally useful.

Viral Meningitis

Mental health Good mental health allows children to think clearly, develop socially, and learn new skills. Mental health can be fostered by making sure a child has some good friends and receives encouraging words from adults. All this is important in helping children develop self-confidence, high self-esteem, and a healthy emotional outlook on life. In order to develop good mental health, a child needs Playtime is as important to a child's development as food and good care, because play teaches children to be creative, to learn problem-solving skills, and to have self-control. Running and exercise help children be physically and mentally healthy. By playing with others, children discover their strengths and weaknesses, develop a sense of belonging, and learn how to get along with others. Parents can be playmates, too playing a board game or coloring with a child gives parents a great opportunity to share ideas and spend time together in a relaxed setting. This also helps teach...

Mental Retardation

And language intervention during the developmental period (Rosenberg and Abbeduto, 1993). A substantial body of research has addressed the language and communication abilities of children and adults with mental retardation who speak. In particular, strong empirical findings about the communication abilities of children and adults with Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, and Williams syndrome suggest a complex picture, with different relations between language comprehension and production and between language and cognition. The development of communicative and language intervention approaches for children with mental retardation who speak is an area of remarkable developments (Kaiser, 1993). Psycholinguistic research findings and behavioral instructional procedures have provided the foundation for language intervention protocols for teaching children with mental retardation specific speech and language skills. An early emphasis on direct instruction was followed by a shift away from the...

Pegylation 369

The CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION uses four categories of increasing disease severity for classifying children with HIV disease. The category in which a child is placed depends on the degree of immune suppression and the kinds of complications and infections the child has developed. Asymptomatic children (CDC Category 'N') show no signs or symptoms of HIV infection or show only one of the conditions for category 'A.' Mildly symptomatic (CDC Category 'A') children have two or more symptoms, such as swollen lymph nodes, enlarged liver or spleen, dermatitis, or recurrent or persistent respiratory tract infections, sinus infections, or middle-ear infections. Moderately symptomatic (CDC Category 'B') children develop conditions considered to be of intermediate severity. These include oral candidiasis that persists for more than two months, bacterial meningitis, pneumonia, recurrent or chronic diarrhea, and lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis. Finally, severely symptomatic (CDC...

Day of Gratification

Delay is more difficult if the rewards are visible (Mischel & Ebbesen, 1970) and if the child is thinking about how wonderful the marshmallow will taste (Mischel & Baker, 1975). If the marshmallows are out of sight (Mischel & Ebbesen, 1970) and if the child is thinking about something else (Mischel, Ebbesen, & Zeiss, 1972), delay of gratification is easier. Paying attention to pictures of the rewards (that is, symbolically presented rewards) instead of the actual rewards increases delay of gratification (Mischel & Moore, 1973). By age 5, children develop effective strategies that enable them to wait for rewards covering the rewards (marshmallows) and thinking about something else (H. Mischel & Mischel, 1983). Children can be taught to think about other things, which improves their ability to delay gratification (Mischel, Ebbesen, & Zeiss, 1972). Adolescents who have difficulty controlling aggression can be taught to use imageiy as a technique for increasing...


Today, most schools use a combination of both approaches. A growing body of research suggests that contextual cues cannot replace word-recognition. Good readers do not skip words or rely on context but read virtually every word and see all letters. In fact, studies demonstrate that only poor readers rely on contextual cues for word identification. Teaching children to guess the meaning of words by context actually decreases the odds that they will learn to read well.


Between the ages of three and five, children typically sleep eleven to thirteen hours each night. Some still nap and some don't. As with toddlers, difficulty falling asleep and waking up during the night are common, so you want to avoid introducing new factors that will disrupt sleep. For example, don't give your child drinks with caffeine in them, like tea or cola, and go easy on chocolate. Avoid the temptation to put a television in your child's bedroom. Research shows that watching TV at bedtime is linked to bedtime resistance and delays in falling asleep, especially if the set is in the child's room.

Sports Medicine

Sports medicine is a 1-year fellowship that provides great freedom for pediatricians. You can work as a general pediatrician and use the training to be the team physician for schools in your community, or you can join an orthopedics practice and work full-time helping children and adolescents with all types of injuries. With high-achieving athletes, watch closely for signs of eating disorders and irregular menses, and with certain fractures in children, carefully consider whether the mechanism of fracture merits further investigation. Fellowships in sports medicine are very competitive and can also be entered from family practice and internal medicine.

Puberty precocious

Some children develop precocious puberty as a result of exposure to estrogen in drugs or food (called medicational precocity). This consists primarily of breast development. Children can be exposed to estrogen if they swallow estrogen-replacement medication or birth control pills. occasionally, reports suggest that estrogen given to livestock also can cause breast development in children.

Shellfish poisoning

While shaken baby abuse is not limited to any special group of people, in 65 percent to 90 percent of cases the shakers are men. In the United States adult males in their early 20s who are the baby's father or the mother's boyfriend are typically the shaker. Females who injure babies by shaking them are more likely to be babysitters or child-care providers than mothers.

Spinal tap 465

Children with spina bifida need to learn how to walk with crutches, braces, or wheelchairs. With new techniques, children also can become independent in managing their bowel and bladder problems. To promote personal growth, parents should encourage children (within the limits of safety and health) to be independent, to participate in activities with their nondisabled peers, and to assume responsibility for their own care.


Society affects personality development. It provides tasks and models, and it influences the way parents raise children. Dollard and Miller described the importance of the social context for personality learning, and they explored social applications, including aggression. Erikson featured society throughout his life-span developmental theory people develop by mastering psychosocial tasks, and cultural institutions continue to support ego strengths throughout life. Horney noted that changes that had taken place in society since the time of Freud affected the types of problems patients brought to therapy.

Defense Mechanisms

Defense mechanisms range from primitive ones, first developed in infancy, to more mature ones, developed later (Kernberg, 1994 Vaillant, 1971, 1992, 1993)- Empirical research finds that the most seriously disturbed individuals, psychotics, use the most primitive defenses denial and distortion of reality. Other immature defenses include projection, dissociation, and acting out. Less primitive (neurotic) defenses include intel-lectualization and isolation, repression, reaction formation, displacement, and rationalization. Finally, suppression and sublimation, as well as altruism and humor, are the most mature defenses (Vaillant, 1994). While everyone needs defense mechanisms to cope with life, people who are better adapted use more mature defenses, while extensive use of primitive defenses is unhealthy (Cramer, 2002). When patients with various diagnoses switch from less mature to more mature defense mechanisms, their functioning improves (Cramer, 2000). Couples who use more mature...

Orgia OKeeffe

Ory can make about any personality is to say that sexual energy is sublimated. More positive psychoanalytic interpretation is possible from the perspective of Melanie Klein's theory, which emphasizes the mother-child relationship, the positive rather than the negative aspects of the feminine psyche (Gadt, 1994).

Self System

The most complex and inclusive of all the dynamisms is the self-system, a consistent pattern of behaviors that maintains people's interpersonal security by protecting them from anxiety. Like intimacy, the self-system is a conjunctive dynamism that arises out of the interpersonal situation. However, it develops earlier than intimacy, at about age 12 to 18 months. As children develop intelligence and foresight, they become able to learn which behaviors are related to an increase or decrease in anxiety. This ability to detect slight increases or decreases in anxiety provides the self-system with a built-in warning device.

Shaken baby syndrome

While shaken baby abuse is not limited to any special group of people, 65 percent to 90 percent of shakers are men. In the United States, adult males in their early twenties who are the baby's father or the mother's boyfriend are typically the shaker. Females who injure babies by shaking them are more likely to be baby-sitters or child care providers than mothers.

Counselling Issues

Attitudes towards having deaf children. However, if hearing parents make every attempt to establish communication channels (e.g. by learning sign language or helping children to lip-read and encourage their speech) and so too does the extended family, then this will help in all aspects of the child's development.

Sturge Weber syndrome

Despite decades of research, scientists still are not sure what causes stuttering, although a variety of factors contribute to its development, including genetics, neurophysiology, child development, and family dynamics. Stuttering may occur when a combination of factors occur and may have different causes in different people. Experts believe that what causes stuttering is not the same thing as the reasons for the problem to continue or get worse.

Autistic systems

Rocking back and forth either standing or sitting is a typical autistic behavior, with the child demonstrating little or no awareness that anyone else exists. However, ifyou introduce rocking behavior with your child instead of waiting for him to produce it as part of his autistic system, then you may be able to transform rocking into an interactive system in which the child starts to develop some awareness of the distinction between him and you, and his ability to influence what you do. Try the following with your habitual rocker. Sit on a stool or in a rocking chair with your child sitting astride your legs, facing you. You are supporting the head and back of your child. This is necessary so that, as you rock by moving from a tilted-back position to a leaning-forward movement, the rocking motion does not interfere with eye contact. Start rocking slowly, then gradually build up the tempo until when the moment is right you abruptly interrupt the motion. The right moment to interrupt...