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Representative pseudocolor digital images offura-2-loaded neurons during epileptogenic glutamate (GLU) injury in the presence of various extracellular Ca2+ conditions and glutamate receptor antagonists. The representative control neuron (A) did not undergo changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ( Ca2+ ) during the recording period. In contrast, neuronal Ca2+ i increased on treatment with glutamate (B) and in all other experimental conditions, as indicated by the change in color...

Info

A., Clark, S., Cao, Z., Wilson, W. A., Jr., Lin, F. H., Morrisett, R. A., and Huin, A. (1992). The role of GABAb receptor activation in absence seizures of lethargic (lh lh) mice. Hunter, C., Chung, E., and Van Woert, M. H. (1989). Age-dependent changes in brain glycine concentration and strychnine-induced seizures in the rat. Brain Res. 482, 247-251. Imaizumi, K., and Nakano, T. (1964). Mutant stocks, strain El. Mouse News Lett. 31, 57. Jobe, P. C., and Laird, H. E. (1981)....

Emilio Perucca

Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine and Therapeutics University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy Institute of Neurology IRCCS C. Mondino Foundation, Pavia, Italy amsterdam boston heidelberg london new york oxford paris san diego san francisco singapore sydney tokyo FT SP ' 1R Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, California 92101-4495, USA 84 Theobald's Road, London WC1X 8RR, UK This book is printed...

AAMI Functional Decline Without Neuron Loss

The neocortex as well as CA1 and other hippocampal fields do not display significant neuron loss in normal aging (Peters et al1998a). If neuron loss cannot account for memory loss with aging, then the neurobiological complement of such functional decline has yet to be found. Insight on this issue has been gained from animal studies of aging, where AAMI can be analyzed without early AD being a potential confounding factor. Studies from both nonhuman primates and rodents have illuminated both...

Mouse Models

Senescence-Accelerated Mouse The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM), originally developed by Takeda in 1981 (Takeda et al., 1981), has been widely used in geriatric research, with nearly 400 citations as of September 2006. However, its use in the field of geriatric epilepsy has been limited. The first publication of an investigation using these animals in the study of seizures was not until 1992, when Yamazaki et al. (1992) reported spontaneous seizures in a substrain of the SAM-resistant...

Rat Models

There is substantially more published literature using rats than mice in the geriatric epilepsy area. However, there are fewer genetic models in rats because of the increased difficulty of genetic manipulations in this species. Models generally fall into three categories acute, lesion, and chronic epilepsy. In aged animals, the most widely used acute models employ a convulsant such as KA or PTZ. Strychnine, pilocarpine, nicotine, and electrical stimulation also induce acute seizures in animal...

Resources

There are numerous resources available that can assist in the use of rodent models. Two publicly available online resources of note provide access to geno-typic and phenotypic information on rat and mouse strains. The Rat Genome Database (http rgd.mcw.edu) provides strain phenotypes, characteristics, genetics, and genomic resources for the rat model. The Mouse Phenome Database at the Jackson Laboratory Web site rtn docs home) provides phenotyping and links to expressed sequence tags for mouse...