Dermatitis seborrheic

Two cups of colloidal oatmeal or aveeno bath or baking soda can be added to the water. In severe cases of weeping sores, cold milk compresses or baking soda baths may help soothe the itch. dermatitis, seborrheic An extremely common form of eczema that causes scaling around the nose, ears, scalp, mid-chest, and along the eyebrows. There may be psoriasis-like plaques and secondary infection as a result of scratching. It is often misdiagnosed by non-physicians as simply dry...

Shingles

Shingles A painful red blistering viral infection of the nerves that supply certain areas of the skin, caused by reactivation of the chicken pox virus (varicella-zoster virus). After causing chicken pox, the virus stays dormant in the child's body. In some children it can become reactivated and cause shingles. The main symptom of shingles is a rash on one side of the body that begins as a cluster of red bumps, eventually changing into small blisters that crust over. The child may also feel...

Ectodermal dysplasia 165

Tion commonly occurs during unfavorable conditions, such as poverty, war, or captivity. The infection is caused by group A streptococci or Staphylococcus aureus. The condition begins with one lesion, which enlarges and encrusts beneath this crust is a pus-filled punched ulcer. Children are more commonly affected with ecthyma, which is usually associated with poor hygiene and malnutrition and minor skin injuries from trauma, insect bites, or scabies. Erythromycin or dicloxacillin is...

Strep throat 469

Medication, children will not experience this. Instead, parents should watch for behavior patterns to help assess how Strattera works, such as sitting through dinner time, settling at bedtime, getting off to school in the morning, or participating in group activities. Side effects of the drug include decreased appetite, upset stomach, nausea or vomiting, and fatigue. strawberry birthmark Also called strawberry nevus, this is a bright red birthmark that usually appears shortly after birth, when...

Scaling disorders of infancy 441

Tinue for up to two weeks longer, but this is not necessarily a failure of treatment or a reinfestation. All members of the family should be treated at the same time. Those with symptoms should be treated with a second course of lotion seven to 10 days later, followed by a cleansing bath eight hours after application, and a change of clothing. Scabies can be prevented by avoiding physical contact with an infested person or contaminated belongings. scalded skin syndrome First recognized as a...

Hemophilia 245

Hemangioma A benign tumor or birthmark caused by an abnormal number of blood vessels in the skin. Hemangiomas may be either superficial, superficial and deep, or deep. Superficial hemangiomas, known as strawberry birthmarks, are bright red protrusions that develop shortly after birth. At about the age of six months the tumor begins to subside and the red color slowly fades by age seven, the hemangioma completely disappears. Deep hemangiomas are blue and never clear up by themselves. These are...

Post Polio Syndrome

Patients who had polio in childhood have a one in five chance of experiencing new health problems decades later. Called post-polio syndrome, the symptoms include joint and muscle pain, tiredness, and weakness. While experts are not sure what causes the problem, they do not think it represents a reactivation of the old virus. Some experts suspect the syndrome may be related to chronic overuse of muscles and joints that had appeared to be undamaged by the initial infection. There is no known cure...

Child care centers and infectious disease since

Young children are often vulnerable targets for infectious disease due to their immature immune systems, grouping many infants and preschoolers together in day-care centers contributes to the spread of infectious disease. The problem is exacerbated by the fact that young children are not particularly concerned with good hygiene, and many day-care centers care for children who are not yet toilet trained. Still, there are ways to lessen the risk. In fact, recent research indicates that after the...

Other Herpes Viruses

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) A close cousin of the herpes simplex virus, the varicella-zoster virus is responsible for two other skin blistering disorders first chicken pox, and later shingles (or herpes zoster), an acute inflammatory infection that produces painful blisters on the skin over the sites of nerves. Although shingles is most common in adults over age 50, it can occur in children who have already had chicken pox. Like the herpes simplex virus, the varicella-zoster virus can affect...

Stimulant medications 467

The injured part, or if the injured part moves in an unnatural way or is very painful. First aid for sprains and strains includes rest, ice, compression, and elevation (known as RICE). As the injured part of the body is rested, ice packs or cold compresses should be applied for up to 10 or 15 minutes at a time every few hours for the first two days to prevent swelling. Wearing an elastic compression bandage (such as an ACE bandage) for at least two days also will help reduce swelling. Keeping...

Scarlatina

However, excessive scaling may indicate one of a group of disorders known as ichthyoses, featuring dry, rough, and scaly skin. These are caused by a defect in the process by which skin cells move upward toward the outer layer of skin (keratiniza-tion). The ichthyosis disorders are caused by a genetic defect causing the skin's natural shedding process to slow down (in some forms of ichthyosis, the production of skin cells is too fast). There are at least 20 varieties of ichthyosis. Of the four...

Animal Allergens

All warm-blooded, furry animals can cause allergic reactions, usually the result of proteins in their saliva, dander, and urine. When the animal licks itself, the saliva gets on the fur. As the saliva dries, protein particles become airborne and work their way into fabrics in the home. Cats often cause the most problems because their salivary protein is extremely small, and they tend to lick themselves as part of grooming more than other animals. An allergist can determine the cause of an...

Plantar warts 395

The human pinworm lives only in the intestine. While not technically a worm, it looks like one. The female pinworm is white, about a third of an inch long. pinworms lay eggs in the skin around the anus. When a child scratches the area, the eggs are transferred directly by the fingers to the mouth, causing reinfestation. The eggs also may be carried on toys or blankets to other children. Once swallowed, the eggs hatch in the intestines, where they grow and reach maturity in about six...

Reporting Abuse

Certain people are legally required to report suspected cases of abuse typically, a report must be made when the reporter suspects or has reasons to suspect that a child has been abused or neglected. Mandated reporters include health-care workers, school personnel, child-care providers, social workers, law enforcement officers, and mental-health professionals. Some states also require others to report suspected abuse or neglect, including animal control officers, veterinarians, commercial film...

Pervasive developmental disorder PDD A

Wide spectrum of neurobiological disorders (also known as autistic spectrum disorders) characterized by delayed development of communication and social skills. The most noticeable feature of a pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) is a problem with communication, including using and understanding language. Children with these disorders can also have trouble relating to others and may play in an unusual way with toys flicking, shaking, spinning, or lining up toys. Children with a PDD also may...

Attention Deficit Information Network Inc A

Nonprofit volunteer organization offering information to families of children and adults with ADD, and professionals, through a network of Attention Deficit Information Network (AD-IN) chapters. AD-IN was founded in 1988 by several parent support group leaders. Today it acts as a community resource for information on training programs and speakers for those who work with individuals with ADD. The organization also presents conferences and workshops for parents and professionals on current...

Adoption Resource Exchange for Single Parents

Inc. (ARESP) A nonprofit organization founded in 1994 to help single people adopt special needs children. ARESP provides direct services to the Washington area but also serves single adults nationwide, and is a member of the North American Council on Adoptable Children, Adoption Exchange Association, Adoptive Families of America, and Families Adopting Children Everywhere. The group advocates and promotes the adoption of older and special needs children in the foster care system while supporting...

Posttraumatic stress disorder

Caused by craniosynostosis, a more serious genetic condition that occurs when skull sutures fuse too soon, causing an abnormal skull shape and possible brain damage. A child with craniosynostosis may have deformities in front of the head, a bony ridge in the skull, and a malformed ear. Parents must put their baby to sleep on his back to help prevent SIDS, despite the chance that he may develop a flattened head. Simply repositioning the child's head during sleep is the most common treatment for...

Herpes genital 253

Herpes simplex virus type II causes 85 percent of genital herpes cases. Type I, which causes most herpes infections above the waist, is responsible for the other 15 percent. The infection is spread by contact with the genital secretions of a person with an active lesion. It is possible, however, for a person with no active lesion to shed virus and infect a sex partner. The virus can infect any skin or mucous membrane surface on the body. For example, a person with a cold sore who engages in...

Treatment

The only acceptable treatment for celiac disease requires a lifelong avoidance of all products that contain gluten, which can prevent almost all complications caused by the disease. If untreated, the child can become malnourished and eventually risk life-threatening complications such as cancer, osteoporosis, anemia, and seizures. Terms to avoid Gluten masquerades under many different names, and children with celiac disease must also avoid ingredients including durum flour, rye, oats and...

Pseudomonas aeruginosa P pyocyanea A

Species of gram-negative bacteria that has been isolated from wounds, burns, and infections of the urinary tract and that is noted for resistance to disinfectants and antibiotics. The bacilli cause a range of human diseases from meningitis to hospital-acquired wound infections and can cause life-threatening lung infections in children with cystic fibrosis. Also, this is a very common cause of osteomyelitis of the foot when a child steps on a nail while wearing tennis shoes. psoriasis A chronic...

Sports injuries

Emergency room or in an experienced pediatrician's office. A spinal tap must be done whenever there is a suspicion of meningitis. sports injuries Football, basketball, baseball, soccer, hockey, gymnastics, and volleyball are the top six sports that cause the most injuries in children. Although these activities help develop muscles and coordination, they can also result in injury, especially in children, whose bones, muscles, tendons, and ligaments are still growing. An estimated 3.5 million...

Bronchopneumonia See pneumonia

Bulimia A destructive pattern of overeating followed by vomiting or other purging behaviors in order to control weight. Unlike girls with anorexia, those with bulimia eat large amounts of food and then get rid of the excess calories by vomiting, abusing laxatives or diuretics, taking enemas, or exercising obsessively. Some use a combination of all of these. Because many girls with bulimia binge and purge in secret and maintain normal or above-normal body weight, they often can successfully hide...

Phobias

Although PKU is not preventable, its symptoms can often be treated successfully through the use of a carefully regimented diet with a restricted phenylala-nine content. Babies are given a special formula that contains very low phenylalanine levels then they gradually progress to eating certain vegetables and other foods that are low in phenylalanine. Affected children must have their blood tested regularly to ensure the presence of the correct level of pheny-lalanine. Foods recommended for...

Rett Syndrome Research Foundation RSRF A

Nonprofit foundation created in 1999 by six parents of girls with rett syndrome. It is dedicated to finding a treatment and cure. (For contact information, see Appendix I.) Reye's syndrome A rare, potentially life-threatening condition that often follows a viral illness. Reye's syndrome appears in only about 0.1 case per 100,000 population and is still not well understood. It predominantly affects children between ages four and 16 and occurs more often when viral diseases are epidemic, such as...

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus LCMV A

Virus carried by hamsters and wild or lab mice that is not harmful to adults, but that can cause birth defects in unborn children whose mothers contract the virus. LCMV was first identified in 1933 in a woman who was thought to have a form of encephalitis. In 1955 it was first recognized in the united Kingdom as a virus that could cause congenital disease. Since then, individual cases of congenital LCMv infection have been identified in Germany, France, Lithuania, and across the united States....

International Academy for Child Brain Development

Goddard and revised several times, but it was not until 1916 that the test was standardized with the revision by Lewis M. Terman in the form still known as the stanford-Binet test. In 1911 William Stern developed the idea of relating mental age to chronological age with his formulation of Intelligence Quotient. This simple formulation of IQ MA CA x 100 gave a number that would stand for the performance of the child. This allowed the IQ to be manipulated within statistical...

Hepatitis D Virus HDV

An uncommon version of the hepatitis virus in the United states, it infects about 15 million people around the world. In the United states, hepatitis D infection occurs more often among adults than children. However, children from underdeveloped countries where hepatitis D is endemic are more likely to contract the virus through breaks in the skin. Cause The virus requires the presence of hepatitis B virus to produce infection, so the frequency of hepatitis D closely parallels hepatitis B....

Methylphenidate See ritalin

Middle ear barotrauma A type of earache related to abnormal pressure changes in the air space behind the eardrum (the middle ear) that usually occurs during an airplane flight. Even in a pressurized aircraft cabin, there is a decrease in the cabin air pressure as the plane climbs as the plane descends, the air pressure increases again. it is during descent when children are most likely to experience the discomfort of middle ear barotrauma. When a plane descends and the pressure in the cabin...

Stroke

Each year there are more than 50,000 cases in pregnant women. It is the most common cause of blood infections (sepsis), meningitis, and pneumonia in newborns. About 15,000 to 18,000 infants are infected in the united States each year, and up to 15 percent of these die. Those who survive may have hearing or vision problems or developmental disabilities. While many people carry group B strep in their bodies, most do not get sick. Other common diseases caused by GBS include blood...

Scoliosis 443

It is an uncommon psychiatric illness in children under age 12, and it is hard to recognize in its early phases in children. schizophrenia is far more common in adolescence, when it occurs in about three out of every 1,000 teens. The behavior of children and teens with schizophrenia may differ from that of adults with this illness. Most schizophrenic children show delays in language and other functions long before their symptoms of hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking...

Impetigo

Benefits of newly developed vaccines, monitor the safety and effectiveness of existing vaccines, and track cases of vaccine-preventable diseases. The topic of vaccine safety became prominent during the mid-1970s as lawsuits were filed on behalf of those presumably injured by the diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus (DPT) vaccine. In order to reduce liability and respond to public health concerns, Congress passed the national childhood vaccine injury act (NCVIA) in 1986. Designed for citizens injured...

Ampicillin Amcill Omnipen Polycillin Principen

A penicillin-type semisynthetic antibiotic used to treat conditions caused by a broad spectrum of gram-negative and gram-positive organisms in the urinary, respiratory, and intestinal tracts. some of these conditions include cystitis, bronchitis, gonorrhea, and ear and eye infections. It is inactivated by penicillinase and therefore cannot be used against bacteria that produce this enzyme. Ampicillin may cause nausea and vomiting, fever, or diarrhea. Allergic reactions may include symptoms of...

Strabismus See lazy eye

Strattera (atomoxetine) The first nonstimulant medication approved for the treatment of ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) in children, adolescents, and adults. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Strattera, November 26, 2002, judging it safe and effective for the treatment of ADHD. Strattera is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor a class of drugs that works differently from the other ADHD medications available. Strattera works by selectively blocking the...

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine PCV A new

Vaccine approved in 2000 to prevent invasive pneumococcal diseases in infants and toddlers, diseases that can cause brain damage and, in rare cases, death. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is not indicated for use in adults or as a substitute for other approved pneumococcal polysac-charide vaccines approved for high-risk children over age two. The previous pneumococcal vaccine (PPV) was not recommended for use in children under age two, who contract the most serious infections from this...

Reading disorder developmental See dyslexia

Receptive language disorder A condition in which a child may have trouble understanding certain aspects of speech, such as a toddler who does not respond to his name or the child who cannot follow simple directions. While hearing is normal, these children cannot make sense of certain sounds, words, or sentences. Because using and understanding speech are strongly related, many children with receptive language disorders also have an expressive language disorder. some misuse of sounds, words, or...

Heimlich Maneuver on a Baby

The Heimlich maneuver should not be performed on a baby if the baby can cough strongly and breathe, cry, or make a normal voice sound. if the baby cannot do any of these things, there may be a serious airway blockage. No one should try to attempt to retrieve the object blocking the airway unless it is visible in the mouth. if visible, the object can be swept out with a finger. By attempting to retrieve an object that is not visible, a helper risks pushing it farther down the baby's windpipe....

Ritalin 433

The infection usually begins as a small pimple that gets larger and larger, leaving scaly patches of temporary baldness infected hair is brittle and breaks off easily. sometimes there is a yellow cuplike crusty area. The infection usually appears 10 to 14 days after contact. Ringworm of the scalp (tinea capitis) involves scaly, temporary bad patches with dandruff-like white scales. The hair may be dull, and the infection may affect only one part of the scalp or may spread over the entire head....

Sturge Weber syndrome

Usually done only if less invasive scans have not provided answers. For this test a child is given general anesthesia. A fine tube is inserted into a blood vessel at the top of the leg and dye is injected through this into the brain X-ray pictures are then taken of the blood vessels in the brain. There are several treatments for children who have had a stroke, depending on the different needs of the individual child. Medications include aspirin, heparin, or warfarin, all of which thin the blood...

Flattened head syndrome See positional plagio

Fluoride A mineral that occurs naturally in all water sources (including the oceans) and that has been proven to reduce cavities in both children and adults. The fluoride ion comes from the element fluorine, the 17th most abundant element in the Earth's crust. Fluoride works to prevent cavities by strengthening teeth under the gums in the jawbone, and by strengthening tooth enamel on the surface of the teeth. Fluoride's benefits for teeth were discovered in the 1930s when dental scientists...

Moniliasis See thrush

Monkeypox A milder relative of smallpox that appeared in the United States for the first time when at least a dozen people had contact in 2003 with infected pet prairie dogs. Monkeypox was reported in humans for the first time in 1970, and until the recent outbreak in the United States, it was a disease never before seen in the Western Hemisphere. Rarely fatal, it causes pus-filled blisters, rashes, chills, and fever. Cases of monkeypox first appeared in sick prairie dogs sold by a Milwaukee,...