Posthypnotic Amnesia

Amnesia may also occur after hypnosis, either spontaneously or by instruction, making the memory of an hypnotic trance vague and unclear, much the way a person has trouble recalling a dream. If a hypnotized subject is told that he or she will remember nothing after awakening, the subject will experience a much more profound posthyp-notic amnesia. However, if the patient is rehypno-tized and given a countersuggestion, he or she will awaken and remember everything therefore, experts believe this...

Phenytoin

Food program used to treat those with PKU is quite expensive, typically costing up to 10,000 a year or more. Although health departments may pay for the formula in some states and mandated insurance coverage may cover the cost in other states, most insurance companies do not cover the cost of treatment for those with PKU because it is considered nutritional rather than medical therapy. While phenylalanine restricted diets have proven to be highly effective in preventing mental retardation, it...

Classification

LD covers a range of possible causes, symptoms, and treatments. Partly because learning disabilities can show up in so many forms, it is difficult to diagnose or to pinpoint the causes. Not all learning problems are necessarily learning disabilities many children are simply slow to develop certain skills. Because children show natural differences in their rate of development, sometimes what seems to be a learning disability may simply be a delay in maturation. For a problem to be diagnosed as a...

Diagnosis

ADHD is primarily diagnosed through a combination of individual and family history, individual behavioral assessments, and information about behavior from parents, teachers, and others. Some tests also contain factors for inattention, dis-tractibility, and memory that can be affected by ADHD, and may contribute to a diagnosis. In addition, certain medical conditions such as hypothyroidism, juvenile diabetes, and seizure disorders must be ruled out as causes of the child's inability to pay...

Psychogenic Amnesia

Several types of amnesia belong to a different class of amnesia than those types caused by injury or disease called psychogenic amnesia, they are induced by hypnotic suggestion or occur spontaneously in reaction to acute conflict or stress (usually called hysterical). This type of amnesia may also extend to basic knowledge learned in school (such as mathematics), which is never seen in organic amnesia unless there is an accompanying aphasia or dementia. These types of amnesia are completely...

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIs

A class of antidepressants that prevents brain cells from reabsorbing serotonin, thus effectively raising the levels of this neurotransmitter. A malfunctioning serotonin system has been implicated in the development of depression. The SSRIs include Prozac (fluoxetine), Zoloft (sertraline), paxil (paroxetine), serzone (nefazodone) and Luvox (fluvoxamine). In addition to depression, these new antidepres-sants appear to be effective in treating a wide range of other mood disorders in addition to...

Occipital cortex See visual cortex

Occipital lobe One of four major pairs of lobes of the cerebral cortex that includes the center of the visual perception system. Although protected from injury because of its location at the back of the brain, any significant trauma here can produce subtle changes to the visual-perceptual system. The occipital lobe is involved in visuospatial processing, discrimination of movement, and color discrimination. Light reaches the sight centers in the occipital lobe through a complex pathway. After...

Plasticity

Plasticity A neuron's ability to change structurally or functionally, often in a permanent way, which enables the brain to recover functions lost through damage. plasticity is responsible for a wide variety of events, including drug tolerance. understanding how plasticity works would provide valuable clues to the way that the nervous system learns and remembers. Because one of the most distinctive features of learning is persistence, an analysis of a neuron's plasticity is important to the...

Magnetic resonance imaging MRI Also called

NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE (NMR), this diagnostic scanning technique provides high quality cross-sectional images of the brain without using X rays or other types of radiation. For many, it has become the preferred technique for brain and spinal cord imaging. (In fact, only the lower cost and faster imaging time for cat scans keep that technology popular for most brain imaging). MRI brain scans have several advantages over CAT scans first, they can easily scan on several planes. In addition,...

Risks

There are some risks involved with this procedure. While it is possible to experience an allergic reaction to the dye, new contrast agents have lowered the risk of a severe reaction to less than one in 80,000 exams. Blood vessels may be damaged at the puncture site, anywhere along the vessel during passage of the catheter, or at the dye injection site. Techniques have been modified recently to allow for treatment in addition to diagnosis in balloon angioplasty, small balloons can be inflated at...

Stroke 297

Stress and the brain The limbic system produces emotional arousal and the cortex monitors and modulates that arousal, but if more stressors accumulate, the balance in the brain may be disturbed. anxiety may represent tension between limbic and cortical impulses. social stress may intensify the damage from stroke, seizures, or the aging process in key brain structures, according to research. Stress and Memory Intense emotions triggered by a stressful or emotional event helps preserve memories of...

Scopolamine

Differs from other more traditional programs, which focus on teaching social skills. In studies at the university of Bern, researchers emphasize thinking abilities by having patients sort cards containing geometric shapes, colors, and days of the week. Training then advances to word problems and interpreting the meaning of social interactions and other complete social skills. As many as 18 months after the program, participants showed substantial improvement on tests measuring attention and...

Nerve signal See nerve impulse

Nervous system A vast network of cells that carry information coded as nerve impulses to and from all parts of the body. The system is divided into the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system (pns) (the nervous tissue outside the cranium and vertebral column). In the average adult human, the brain weighs about three pounds and contains about 100 billion nerve cells (neurons) and trillons of support cells called glia. The spinal cord is about 43...

Nondominant hemisphere The brain hemisphere that is not dominant for speech

Nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) A form of learning disability that primarily affects social functioning in areas such as interpersonal skills, social perception, and interaction. Also called right-hemisphere learning disorders, this problem often goes unrecognized for a large part of a child's schooling. since abnormalities of the right brain hemisphere interfere with understanding and adaptive learning, experts believe that nonverbal learning disabilities are more debilitating than...

Piracetam

When surgery is not possible, radiation may be given alone or combined with chemotherapy. chemotherapy to destroy cancer cells is often used in combination with radiation to treat germinomas. It is rarely used for other pineal tumors. piracetam A drug belonging to a group of drugs called nootropics piracetam appears to improve the learning ability of animals and protect against memory loss in the absence of oxygen (anoxia) by improving the transmission of impulses between...

Pineal gland tumors 251

ASSOCIATION OF DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES COUNCILS NATIONAL DOWN SYNDROME CONGRESS NATIONAL DOWN SYNDROME SOCIETY PARENTS OF CHILDREN WITH DOWN SYNDROME VOICE OF THE retarded young adult institute and workshop. pineal gland A tiny structure within the brain responsible for secreting the hormone melatonin, which induces sleep and regulates circadian rhythm, affecting mood and mental quickness. The amount of this hormone varies over a 24-hour period and is greatest at night. It is believed that...

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD

A group of behavioral problems marked by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness, formerly called attention deficit disorder (ADD), hyperactivity, hyperkinetic syndrome and or minimal brain dysfunction. ADHD's wide variety of names and definitions occurs primarily because the symptoms of this syndrome are complex and varied many times, all these behaviors do not appear in one child at any one time. Both children and adults with ADHD consistently display inattention, hyperactivity, and...

Demyelinating disorders

Treatment includes rest, rehydration, and sedation with vitamin injections because some of the features of delirium tremens seem linked with thi-amine deficiency. delta waves brain wave pattern during deep dreamless sleep. In adults, the presence of waves during wakefulness show the presence of brain DAMAGE or BRAIN DISORDERS. dementia The general decline in all areas of mental ability, including memory, personality, visual skills, spatial relations, and general thinking ability. It may be...

Dystonia

Dysautonomia, including shy-drager syndrome, Parkinson's disease, mitral valve prolapse, Chagas' disease, and many other disorders. Familial dysautonomia (FD) is characterized by widespread sensory and ANS dysfunction caused by incomplete development of sensory and auto-nomic brain cells. FD has been noted only in individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish extraction. Individuals with FD cannot produce overflow tears with emotional crying, and they may have an inappropriate perception of heat, pain, and...

Cognex

The feeling of alertness experienced by cocaine users is caused by the increasing activity of norepi-nephrine cells in the higher thought centers of the Chronic administration can result in permanent neurological damage, at least among animals brain damage in humans is still being studied. At its worst, users can experience a frightening psychotic condition known as cocaine psychosis, which may appear similar to schizophrenia. It is believed to be related to dopamine. Scientists know that...

Outlook

Treatment for learning disabilities is extremely important if the child is to be successful. in fact, 35 percent of students with untreated learning disabilities fail to finish high school. Most students with learning disabilities were not fully employed one year after graduating from high school. Adolescents with untreated learning disabilities are at higher risk for drug and alcohol abuse. one study showed that up to 60 percent of adolescents in treatment for substance abuse had learning...

Tricyclic antidepressants 315

Times be relieved by small doses of alcohol or by taking beta-blockers. Both of these types of tremor increase with movement of the affected part of the body. More persistent tremors are caused by trauma, tumors, stroke, or degenerative disease. Coarse tremors (four to five movements per second) that occur during rest, diminishing during movement, are a common sign of Parkinson's disease. Intention tremors (tremors that worsen on movement) are a sign of cerebellum disease. Tremors often...

Pseudodementia

Function of those molecules, increasing or decreasing their level of activity. scientists first realized the potential of pKc in 1986 when Princeton University researchers noted that the protein mimicked cellular changes that occur during learning. scientists already knew that the electrochemical action in neurons changes as an animal learns, and that a protein requiring calcium is involved. When researchers realized that a single molecule was responsible for learning and memory, they reasoned...

Jewish Association for Retarded Citizens JARC

A Jewish association providing residential care and support services to developmentally disabled adults the group operates 16 group homes that provide access to Jewish services, maintains kosher kitchens, and observes Jewish holidays. Although the group primarily services individuals in the Detroit area, JARC has a national membership. The group is affiliated with the association for retarded citizens. Founded in 1969, the group publishes brochures and a bimonthly newsletter. See also center...

Acute idiopathic polyneuritis The medical name

Addiction The physiological and psychological dependence on a particular chemical substance produced by the habitual use of a certain drug. Addiction is typically an interaction among personality, environment, biology, and social acceptability. Denied the required dose of a drug, an addicted user goes through a period of agonizing withdrawal. Experts are still debating whether the motivation for continual drug abuse springs from a wish to avoid withdrawal or to achieve the drug-related...

Shaken baby syndrome

Is of profound importance in sexuality itself. sexual activity is moderated by the limbic system structures in the temporal lobe damage in this area has been linked to hypersexuality, an abnormal condition characterized by an increased sex drive and an indiscriminate choice of partners. In both men and women, the sex drive and sexual response appear to be triggered by the sense organs or hypothalamus. Instinctual sexual behavior is genetically programmed in the hypothalamus and the limbic...

Huntingtons Disease Society of America A

National support group for individuals and volunteers concerned with Huntington's disease (hd), an inherited and terminal neurological condition causing progressive brain and nerve deterioration. The society provides information on the disease, offers referrals to physicians and support groups, and answers questions on presymptomatic testing. The society hopes to identify HD families, promote and support basic and clinical research into the cause and cure of HD, maintain patient-services...

National Foundation for Brain Research A

Foundation dedicated to preventing and curing disorders of the brain, this group collected, organized, and disseminated information relating to the 1990s as the Decade of the Brain. The group maintained the Decade of the Brain coalition, which achieved by the end of the decade a large increase in federal funding for research on the brain. It also increased public awareness of the importance of brain research by producing educational TV programs, distributing reports and pamphlets, and operating...

Gilles de la Tourettes syndrome See tourettes

Ginkgo biloba This extract from the oldest known species of tree (also known as a maidenhair tree) seems to increase the flow of nutrients and oxygen to the brain. As it increases circulation, it also boosts the production of adenosine triphosphate (atp) and streamlines the brain's ability to metabolize glucose. It also appears to prevent platelet clumping in arteries and serves as a powerful ANTIOXIDANT. The tree dates back 300 million years and is the only living representative of the order...

Medulla oblongata Full name of the medulla

Medulloblastoma A malignant tumor of the cerebellum (a part of the brain located in the lower rear portion of the cranium), one of the most common types of brain tumors found in children. About 50 percent of these tumors are confined to the connecting bridge between the two halves of the cerebellum the rest actually invade the cerebellum or the brain stem. The cause of a medul-loblastoma is unknown. Most medulloblastomas occur between the ages of four and eight, with a peak incidence around age...

Mesencephalon See midbrain

Mesmer, Franz Anton (1734-1815) An Austrian physician whose system of treatment (known as mesmerism) was the forerunner of modern-day hypnosis. While still a student at the university of Vienna in 1766, Mesmer discovered the work of the Renaissance mystic physician Paracelsus. He tried to uncover a link between astrology and human health as a result of planetary forces transmitted through a subtle invisible fluid. By 1775, Mesmer began to teach that a person may transmit universal forces to...

Association for Retarded Citizens ARC A

National support group for parents, professionals, and others interested in individuals with mental retardation. The group works on the local, state, and national levels to promote services, research, public understanding, and legislation for mentally retarded persons and their families. Founded in 1950, the group publishes the semimonthly ARC Government Report, a monthly, The ARC NOW, and the bimonthly The ARC today. For address, see Appendix I. See also association for children with down...

Association for Children with Down Syndrome

A national support group for parents of children with down syndrome and for health professionals. The association acts as a resource and information center about Down syndrome and works to maintain contact with the medical community and with parents of children with Down syndrome. The organization seeks to ease children into the main stream through social, recreational, and educational programs, encourages parental advocacy, seeks to educate the public, conducts research, and publishes...